Hello Sir. What are your views on Uttar Kuru and Uttar Madra? The princes of the Aila dynasty which is also the dynasty of Kurus have been called Karddameya. Further, in Raghuvamsa, there is a conquest described by Indian king Raghu to Transaxonia I have only read the Wiki article on that. This too seems to be conflicting. Can you shed light on this please? I also wanted to add, that some others have identified Uttar Kuru as “Hyperborea” lit. They argue that this was the common region from where all Aryan tribes descended.
Lecture 2. The Veda and the Testimonies to Its Early Existence.
Jump to navigation. A vast number of statements and materials presented in the ancient Vedic literatures can be shown to agree with modern scientific findings and they also reveal a highly developed scientific content in these literatures. The great cultural wealth of this knowledge is highly relevant in the modern world.
Max Muller, perhaps the most well known early sanskritist and indologist, although later in life he glorified the Vedas, initially wrote that the “Vedas were worse than savage” and “India must be conquered again by education Thomas Macaulay, who introduced English education into India wanted to make the residents into a race that was: ” Indian in blood and color, but English in taste, in opinion, in morals, and in intellect.
However, the German Philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer stated that the Sanskrit understanding of these Indologists was like that of young schoolboys.
Originally Answered: How are the vedas dated? The rig vedas has been dated around to bc and the other vedas subsequently. But how do you date.
Composed in Vedic Sanskrit , the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. The Vedas have been orally transmitted since the 2nd millennium BCE with the help of elaborate mnemonic techniques. The Sanskrit term veda as a common noun means “knowledge”. Marai literally means “hidden, a secret, mystery”.
Such writings include the Divya Prabandham aka Tiruvaymoli. The corpus of Vedic Sanskrit texts includes:. While production of Brahmanas and Aranyakas ceased with the end of the Vedic period, additional Upanishads were composed after the end of the Vedic period. In other parts, they show evolution of ideas, such as from actual sacrifice to symbolic sacrifice, and of spirituality in the Upanishads. As Axel Michaels explains:. According to tradition, Vyasa is the compiler of the Vedas, who arranged the four kinds of mantras into four Samhitas Collections.
The Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. Michael Witzel gives a time span of c.
Questioning the VEDAS NOT WRITTEN myth
Astronomical Dating of the Vedas, and the Mahabharata. Author: Deep1. A longish post, but it may well be worth your time. It questions many established archeological timeframes. It is also corroborated that Krishna was a principal figure in the war of the Mahabharata. Consider a passage from the epic below: Quote A white planet has passed Chitra Spica.
Some archaeologists maintain that the evidence from the Harappa dig and Mohenjo-Daro show the dating of the Vedas in fact to be a great deal later than.
This exchange between His Divine Grace A. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada and a British student took place during an early-morning walk in London in Srila Prabhupada: The message of Krishna consciousness comes from the spiritual world. It is not of this material world. Therefore sometimes people may misunderstand it. So we have to explain it nicely. They cannot even understand what is the soul.
Big, big scientists. Big, big philosophers. They have no information of the spirit and the spiritual world.
SELECTIONS, PASSAGES AND QUOTES FROM THE VEDAS
Additionally, tradition ascribes parts to other rishis, such as Kausika, Vasishta and Kasyapa. The dating of the Atharva Veda is very clear unlike the other 3 Vedas, It is clear that the core text of the Atharva Veda is not particularly recent in the Vedic Samhita tradition, and falls within the classical Mantra period of Vedic Sanskrit at the end of 2 nd Millenium BC- roughly contemporary with the Yajur Veda mantras, the Rig vedic Khilani, and the Sama Veda.
During its oral tradition, however, the text has been corrupted considerably more than some other Vedas, and it is only from comparative philology of the two surviving recessions that we may hope to arrive at an approximation of the original reading. Often in corresponding hymns, the two recessions have different verse orders, or each has additional verses not in the other. Several Upanishads also are associated with the Atharva Veda, but appear to be relatively late additions to the tradition.
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If Veda Vyasa wrote the vedas, then how is it possible for other Rishis to write the vedic hymns? If Veda Vyasa wrote the vedas then how is it possible that one is the oldest veda and the other newer? If Vedas existed since the beginning then how can Veda Vyasa or for that matter any seers write them? Here in this article we try to unravel this mystery about the vedas and try to obtain a picture as clear as possible. They gave the world meaning and life a purpose. These chants relieved Vedana, the yearning of the restless human soul, hence became collectively known as the Veda.
Modern Science can tell us how the universe works to a large extent , but it cannot tell us WHY it works the way it does? It can tell us how life evolved. But science cannot tell us WHY life exists, or what is the purpose of our life.
Structure of the Vedas
No definite date can be ascribed to the composition of the Vedas, but the period of about — bce is acceptable to most scholars. The hymns formed a liturgical body that in part grew up around the soma ritual and sacrifice and were recited or chanted during rituals. They praised a wide pantheon of gods, some of whom personified natural and cosmic phenomena, such as fire Agni , the Sun Surya and Savitri , dawn Ushas, a goddess , storms the Rudras , and rain Indra , while others represented abstract qualities such as friendship Mitra , moral authority Varuna , kingship Indra , and speech Vach, a goddess.
Sacred formulas known as mantras were recited by the adhvaryu , the priest responsible for the sacrificial fire and for carrying out the ceremony. A few centuries later, perhaps about bce , the Brahmana s were composed as glosses on the Vedas, containing many myths and explanations of rituals. The whole of the literature seems to have been preserved orally although there may have been early manuscripts to assist memory.
British Broadcasting Corporation Home. Hindus believe that the Vedas texts were received by scholars direct from God and passed on to the next generations by word of mouth. Hindus believe that the texts were received by scholars direct from God and passed on to the next generations by word of mouth. Vedic texts are sometimes called shruti , which means hearing. For hundreds, maybe even thousands of years, the texts were passed on orally.
The Vedas are made up of four compositions, and each veda in turn has four parts which are arranged chronologically. The Upanishads were so called because they were taught to those who sat down beside their teachers. These texts developed from the Vedic tradition, but largely reshaped Hinduism by providing believers with philosophical knowledge. The major Upanishads were largely composed between BCE and are partly prose, partly verse. Later Upanishads continued to be composed right down to the 16th century.
Originally they were in oral form. Whilst the priests brahmins had previously been the ones who, through ritual and sacrifice, had restricted access to the divine, now the knowledge of the universe was open to those of the high and middle castes willing to learn from a teacher. The Bhagavad Gita, or “Song of the Lord” is part of the sixth book of the Mahabharata, the world’s longest poem. It is one of the most popular Hindu texts and is known as a smriti text the remembered tradition.
VEDIC CHRONOLOGY 1: ASTRONOMICAL DATING
The idea that the Vedas are eternal does not fit into the mental outlook of Western indologists. Their claims to impartiality and to conducting research in a scientific manner notwithstanding, they are not prepared to accord an elevated status to the Hindu texts. Many Hindu research scholars have also found themselves unable to accept the view that the Vedas are eternal. Modern historians have adopted chiefly two methods to determine the date of the Vedas: the first is based on the astronomical references in the scriptures and the second on the morphology of the language of the same.
Dating the Rg-Veda by Dr. Koenraad Elst (Edited by N.S. Rajaram) The determination of the age in which Vedic literature started and flourished.
Often times, scholars use the astronomical signs mentioned in our ancient texts to date those texts. The problem with this is that they do not provide definitive dates in themselves, but provide dates with repetitious cycles unless additional information is taken into account. There are two equinoxes during the calender year: the spring equinox and the vernal equinox and are days when the light of the Sun will spend a nearly equal amount of time above and below the horizon at every location on Earth and night and day will be of the same length.
An equinox in astronomy is that moment in time not a whole day when the center of the Sun can be observed to be directly above the Earth’s equator, occurring around March 20 and September 23 each year. The one in March 20 is considered the spring equinox and the September equinox is the vernal equinox. The precession of the equinoxes refers to the precession of Earth’s axis of rotation with respect to inertial space. The positions of the equinoxes move westward along the ecliptic compared to the fixed stars on the celestial sphere.
Currently, this annual motion is about The process is slow, but cumulative. In terms of people from earth observing the stars, it looks like the constellations of the zodiac move counter-cyclical to the earth’s motion around the sun. This journey over 25, years covers the 12 constellations of the sky with the sun rising on the vernal equinox in the same zodiac for approximately 2, years in each constellation.
Since there is also a precession of the earth’s axis, the equinox dates keep changing every year, and when seen from a stellar background the constellation in which the sun rises on the vernal equinox also keeps changing over a period of time.
The problem of using Astronomy in dating the Vedas, Ramayana, Mahabharata
They are the oldest scriptural texts of Hinduism. Philosophies and sects that developed in the Indian subcontinent have taken differing positions on the Vedas. Two other Indian philosophies, Buddhism and Jainism , did not accept the authority of the Vedas and evolved into separate religions. The Vedas are arguably the oldest surviving scriptures in the world. Most Indologists agree that a long oral tradition existed long before they were written down by the second century B.
As used by these authors, the term “Vedic Period” includes the long period of gradual pre-literary cultural developments which eventually gave rise to written texts.
The New Testament of the Bible is about 2,00 years old. Though no one can assign any definite date to the Vedas, Oreintalists are anxious to discover when they.
Considered as the earliest literary records of Sanskrit Literature , the Vedas compiled by Rishi Vyasa are believed to be the oldest holy books in Hinduism Sanatana Dharma. The Vedas are the large body of vast knowledge and text; the religious and spiritual teachings of which encompasses all aspects of life. However, no definite date can be ascribed to the composition of the Vedas as the generational descend of the texts in Vedic periods was by literary oral tradition, which was then a precise and elaborate technique.
The first of the written Vedas date to 1st millennium BCE, though the surviving ones now date only to somewhere in between 11th and 14th century mostly due to the ephemeral nature of the manuscript materials; the birch barks or palm leaves. The tales tell humans did not compose the revered compositions of the Vedas, but the knowledge was discovered by intense meditation and sadhana Yogic practice by ancient sages, who then handed them down through generations by word of mouth.
Some schools of thought even assert that the Vedas as of eternal creation, mainly in the Mimasa tradition. However, the Vedic hymns themselves assert that they were skillfully created by Rishis sages , after inspired creativity. The Rig Veda serves as the principal one and all three but the Arthaveda agree with one another in form, language, and content. Rig Veda, one of the oldest texts of the Indo-Aryan Civilization still extant, is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic hymns. A collection of 1, hymns and 10, verses in all, organized into ten different Mandalas or the books; Sanskrit , it is the principal and oldest of the four Vedas.
The initial written Rig Veda dates back to 1st millennium BCE although the extant ones today date back only to somewhere between 11th and 14th centuries; primarily due to the ephemeral nature of the manuscript materials which were either palm leaves or birch barks. Vedas, before the initial codification of which took place, were generationally handed over by the rich oral literary tradition, which was then a precise and elaborate technique.
The earliest texts of the Rig Veda were composed in the greater Punjab Northwest India and Pakistan , and the more philosophical later texts were most likely composed in or around the region of Haryana Modern-day State of India.
The Rigveda is the oldest known Vedic Sanskrit text. The text is layered consisting of the Samhita , Brahmanas , Aranyakas and Upanishads. In the eight books — Books 2 through 9 — that were composed the earliest, the hymns predominantly discuss cosmology and praise deities. Some of its verses continue to be recited during Hindu rites of passage celebrations such as weddings and prayers, making it probably the world’s oldest religious text in continued use.
So how’s that the dating of Rig Veda is given much later around BC here? If the river was exiting when Vedas.
On 14 March , Dr. As we do not have art objects or archaeological evidence, scholars have used philology to understand the language and the people of the Vedic times. He pointed out that the study of texts and their language and what it represents should be made clear. The geographic region described in the Vedas can be broadly surmised by the description of rivers given, to be between Kabul and Delhi of present day South Asia.
Witzel gave a broad overview of the four Vedas. The Rig Veda is comprised of hymns that are addressed to the deities. It reveals a pastoral, semi-nomadic community, moving around with cattle. The other Vedas include: Sama Veda, essentially the same hymns of the Rig Veda, except sung in a complex manner; the Yajur Veda which were sacrificial mantras, and the Atharva Veda which included sorcery, speculative hymns and domestic rites, many of which continue to be used. The Vedic texts also reveal that there were three classes of people to which the Shudras were added which later became more rigid as castes.
The pronunciation was seen as being very important as mis-pronunciation can change the meaning of the word. The speaker humorously gave an illustration of how a phrase about Indra, mis-pronounced meant being an enemy of Indra, and teachers often quote it to suggest that Indra came down and severed the head of the son of Tvastar who mispronounced.